The apostle Paul wrote to the Gentile believers in Colossae that the feasts of the Lord, the new moon, and the Sabbath days were a shadow of things to come to teach us about Christ (Colossians 2:16-17). Jesus was the substance or fulfillment of the greater plan that God revealed and foreshadowed in these seven important festivals. These seven feasts represent and typify the sequence, timing, and significance of the major events of the Lord’s redemptive history.
We have studied the four spring feasts – Passover, Unleavened Bread, Firstfruits and Pentecost. These four feasts were a prophetic foreshadowing of the first coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. The anti-type of Passover was the death of Christ on Calvary. The anti-type of the feast of Unleavened Bread was the burial of Christ. The anti-type of First Fruits was the resurrection of Christ. The anti-type of Pentecost was the arrival of the New Covenant.
The fall feasts were a prophetic foreshadowing of the second coming of Christ. So far, we have only looked at the first fall feast, which was the Feast of Trumpets. The anti-type of the Feast of Trumpets (Rosh HaShanah) was the resurrection of the Dead that took place in A.D. 70. The two remaining feasts are the Day of Atonement and. Tabernacles. We will study the Day of Atonement today and Tabernacles next week.
Listen, believers, most all theologians will agree that these seven feasts relate to these redemptive events, but they fail to see the topology of the forty year exodus. Therefore, they are still looking for the fall feast to occur in the future. They have separated the fall feasts from the spring feasts by thousands of years which destroys many different types given in the Old Testament; the main one being the Exodus. The book of Hebrews makes it clear that the exodus and forty years are a type that is fulfilled in the New Covenant.
Let’s look at the sixth feast of the Lord, which is the Day of Atonement.
Leviticus 23:27 (NKJV) "Also the tenth day of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. It shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to the LORD.
Leviticus 16:30-31 (NKJV) "For on that day the priest shall make atonement for you, to cleanse you, that you may be clean from all your sins before the LORD. 31 "It is a Sabbath of solemn rest for you, and you shall afflict your souls. It is a statute forever.
The Day of Atonement was Israel’s sixth instituted holy day and occurs in the autumn of the year. On the Hebrew calendar, it falls on the tenth day of Tishri, the seventh Hebrew month, which roughly corresponds to September or October.
"The Day of Atonement" is the English equivalent for Yom Kippur. For many, however, the word atonement is vague and sheds no light on the meaning of the holiday. Kippur is from the Hebrew word kaphar, meaning: "to cover." Therefore, the word atonement simply means a covering. It was on Yom Kippur that an atonement (covering) was made for the previous year’s sins. The atonement or covering consisted of blood sacrifice of an innocent animal.
Yom Kippur was the most solemn day of the year for the people of Israel. It was often simply referred to as "The Day." It was a day that atonement was made for the priest and his family, the community, the Most Holy Place, the tent of meeting, and the altar. It was a solemn day. The Day of Atonement also was known as the "Great Fast" or "The Day of the Fast". Yom Kippur was designated by the Lord as a day in which "you shall afflict your souls." By definition, this was understood to mean fasting.
Yom Kippur was not the only fast within Judaism, but was the only fast mandated by scripture. The Israelite who failed to devote himself to fasting and repenting on Yom Kippur was to be "cut off from his people" (Lev. 23:29) Yom Kippur was also a day with prohibitions against all forms of work. Those who likewise chose to ignore this regulation would suffer the death penalty (Lev. 23:30).
Yom Kippur was also a very solemn day for the priesthood of Israel. Only on that singular day of the year was the high priest permitted to enter the Holy of Holies in the Temple and stand before the presence of God’s glory. In doing so, the high priest was required to wear holy garments woven from white linen instead of his normal colorful garments overlaid with the golden breastplate. His linen garments were worn only on that day and never again.
It was absolutely critical to the nation that their high priest not become ritualistically unclean and, thereby, disqualify himself from performing his Yom Kippur duties. To safeguard against this possibility, the priest was required to leave his home one week before Yom Kippur to stay in the priest’s headquarters in the Temple area. During the week, the high priest was twice sprinkled with the ashes of a red heifer to circumvent the possibility that he had become unclean through touching a dead body. Such was the normal cleansing process for ceremonial defilement (Numbers 19:1-10).
A substitute was also appointed for the high priest in the event he should die, or despite all precautions, become unclean. This substitute was usually next in line for the high priest’s office, and, as such, the most powerful individual in the Temple after the High Priest. He was the captain of the Temple and exercised direct command of the officers of the Temple guard (Levites patrolled the Temple facilities, enforcing Mosaic law). It was the captains of the temple who gave Peter and John quite a fit in the book of Acts:
Acts 4:1 (NKJV) Now as they spoke to the people, the priests, the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees came upon them,
The high priest did not perform the Temple services on a regular basis, but during the week leading up to Yom Kippur, he alone conducted the sacrifices. All aspects of his duties for the coming holy day were faithfully practiced, whether it was sprinkling blood with his thumb and forefinger, burning incense, lighting the lamp stand, or rehearsing his movements throughout the Temple. There could be no mistakes, or the result would be a monumental catastrophe and humiliation for the nation – Israel’s sacrifices would be disqualified, leaving the sins of the people uncovered.
Although the Jewish day began at sunset, the Temple service for Yom Kippur did not begin until dawn the next morning. The ashes on the altar were cleared away, and four fires, instead of the normal three, were lit to set the day apart as distinct. On any other day, the high priest would merely wash his hands and feet with water from the priestly laver before performing his service. On Yom Kippur, he was required to totally immerse himself in a special golden bath near the Court of the Priests. This was carried out behind a large linen curtain, which revealed the shadow of his movements to the public view. This assured that no changes were made to the required procedures. The high priest put on his golden garments with great care. His majestic purple robe was hemmed with tiny golden bells so the people could hear him
work as he represented them. Over the top of his robe, he wore a golden breastplate which was studded with 12 precious stones – a constant reminder that he was the representative of the 12 tribes of Israel before the true and living God.
After dressing, the high priest washed his hands and feet to perform the regular daily service. Following the morning service, the high priest returned to his bath chamber to change into his white linen garments for Yom Kippur. Five times during the day, he changed clothing, and five times he followed the same cleansing procedure. Each time, he washed his hands and feet, removed his garments, totally immersed his body, put on his change of clothing, and washed his hands and feet a second time.
The afternoon Temple service was the main focus of the Yom Kippur observance. Through the sacrifices of this service, atonement was made for the sins of the priesthood and people of Israel for the preceding year.
The high priest began the afternoon service by moving to the Court of the Priests, where a young bull awaited him between the altar and the Temple porch. Since this bull was the sin offering for the high priest and the priesthood, the ceremony took place near the Temple where the priests ministered. The high priest would press his two hands against the head of the young bull, as a sign of identification with it as his substitute, and make a confession of his sin. Three times during his confession, he would pronounce the covenant name of the Lord (YAHWEH). Under Jewish oral law, this holy name was forbidden to be spoken on any other occasion lest it be taken in vain (Exodus 20:7) by mispronouncing it or misusing it. Each time the name was uttered by the high priest, the people of the priests would fall on their faces in worship and repeat, "Blessed be His name whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever!"
The high priest was next escorted by two priests to the eastern side of the altar. On his right was the deputy high priest (the priest appointed to take his place in case he became unable to fulfill his duties). On his left, he was escorted by the chief priest of the division of priests chosen to minister that week. In all, the priesthood was divided into 24 courses of priests, with each course serving one week on a rotating 24-week schedule (1 Chr. 24:19).
Two goats stood there, side by side, awaiting the high priest. They were identical in size, color, and value. They faced the Temple and gazed at the high priest and his entourage as they approached.
Two golden lots were placed inside a golden vessel sitting on the stone pavement nearby. One was inscribed with "FOR YAHWEH", and the other with "FOR AZAZEL." The high priest shook the vessel and randomly took one lot in each hand. As he held the lots to the foreheads of the goats and determined the outcome, he declared them "a sin offering to the Lord." The two goats together were viewed as one singular offering.
The goat, upon which the lot "For Azazel" fell, was immediately identified by a crimson strip of wool tied to one of its horns. It was then turned around to face the people, whose sin would later be placed on its head. Some debate exists as to the exact meaning of Azazel. Some believe it was a reference to Satan; for in Jewish tradition, Azazel was the name of a fallen angel. Others believe it just means "escape." This line of thinking led to the thought of calling this goat the "scapegoat", since it escaped death and was driven into the wilderness. The goat determined FOR YAHWEH was left to face the large stone altar; the place where it was shortly to be offered as a sin offering.
In the days of the second temple, the scapegoat was actually killed so that it (carrying Israel’s sins) could not wander into an inhabited place at a later time. To prevent such a tragedy, the scapegoat was led to the edge of a rocky crag and pushed off backwards by the priest.
The best interpretation of the Azazel is understood by Alfred Edersheim in his book, The Temple, Its Ministry, and Services. Edersheim says that the later Jewish practice of pushing the goat over a rocky precipice was undoubtedly an innovation, in no wise sanctioned by the law of Moses, and not even introduced at the time the Septuagint translation was made, as its rendering of Leviticus 16:26 shows. The law simply ordained that the goat, once arrived in "the land not inhabited," was to be "let go" free, and the Jewish ordinance of having it pushed over the rocks is signally characteristic of the Rabbinical perversion of its spiritual type. The word "azazel", which only occurs in Leviticus 16, is by universal consent, derived from a root which means: "wholly to put aside," or "wholly to go away" (page 258). My position is one that sees the Messiah represented as both the goat who was slaughtered and its blood taken into the Most Holy of Holies, and as the goat who bore our transgressions upon Himself and was lead into the wilderness. The idea of releasing the goat into the wilderness shows the removal of our sins; that God removed our sins by placing them on Messiah.
The high priest returned to the young bull a second time and pressed his hands on its head. This time he confessed the sins of the priesthood, where as before he had confessed his own sin upon its head. The bull was then slaughtered by the high priest, and its blood collected in a golden bowl. A nearby attending priest was handed the bowl and given the task of stirring the blood so that it would not congeal.
Next, the high priest took a golden fire pan or censer and walked up the ramp to the altar. He carefully filled the fire pan with live coals from the fires burning on top of the altar. Then he took two handfuls of incense and placed them in a golden ladle. With the fire pan in his right hand, and the incense in his left, he ascended to the Temple and passed through the Holy Place where the lamp stand, the table of showbread, and altar of incense were located. At the rear of the Holy Place, he paused to make his way through the veil (the thick curtain which separated the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies). Once inside the Holy of Holies, he stood in quiet solitude. Only the soft orange glow of the coals lit the room.
The high priest poured the incense onto the coals and waited a few moments for a fragrant cloud of smoke to fill the room before making his way back through the thick curtain.
In Solomon’s Temple, the Ark of the Covenant resided in the Holy of Holies, and the Shekinah Glory of the Lord rested above it. After the Babylonian Captivity, the ark was never recovered. The Holy of Holies remained an empty room with only a singular stone (called the "foundation stone") projecting three fingers in height (2 1/4 inches) up from the pavement. The high priest then took the golden bowl filled with the bull’s blood and returned to the Holy of Holies. He carefully sprinkled the blood before the Ark of the Covenant. He sprinkled it once upwards and then seven times downwards, as though he were cracking a whip. All the while he counted aloud to prevent any errors. He then exited the Holy of Holies and placed the bowl in a golden stand. The high priest continued outside to the court of the Priests to slaughter the goat set aside for the Lord. He collected its blood in a golden bowl and entered the Holy of Holies a third time, sprinkling the blood of the goat in the same manner as that of a bull.
Afterwards, he sprinkled the outside of the veil with the blood of the bull. Then he repeated the procedure with the blood of the goat. Finally, he poured the two bowls together and sprinkled the horns (protruding points on each corner) of the altar in the courtyard.
Attention was then drawn to the remaining goat. The high priest proceeded to lay his hands on its head and confessed the sins of the people upon it. The scapegoat was then led by a priest
through the Eastern Gate more than 10 miles into the wilderness never to be seen again.
While the scapegoat was being led into the wilderness and the people awaited word that it had been accomplished, the afternoon service continued. The high priest finished sacrificing the bull and the goat on the altar, and their remaining parts were taken outside the city to be burned (Hebrews 13:11-13). Then the high priest addressed the people. He read the Yom Kippur passages from Leviticus and quoted the Numbers passage by heart to verify that all commandments had been duly accomplished. Finally, the remaining offerings for Yom Kippur were offered; these were the burnt offerings, as opposed to the sin offerings.
The high priest entered the Holy of Holies a final time to remove the fire pan and incense ladle. He then bathed, for the fifth time during the day, and changed into his golden garments. As the cool autumn night quickly approached, he performed the regular evening Temple service, and drew Yom Kippur to a close.
The modern observance of Yom Kippur bears little resemblance to its Biblical observance. Modern observance is based more on traditions of men than commandments of God.
The Day of Atonement speaks of blood sacrifice. Blood sacrifice is centrally tied to the sin issue. The substitutionary death of an innocent one was required, since an atonement (covering) for sin was to be made only through the blood:
Leviticus 17:11 (NKJV) ‘For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’
Hebrews 9:22 (NKJV) And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission.
Even the Jewish rabbinic tradition states, "There is no atonement but by blood."
The penalty for breaking God’s law is death (the shedding of blood). His justice demands it, but in His mercy, He made a provision for a substitute. Since "There is none who does good, No, not one" (Psalm 14:3), God commanded the sacrificing of lambs, bulls, and goats under the Mosaic Covenant.
The Old Covenant was just a forerunner of something greater, a temporary measure until the fullness of time when God would institute the New Covenant. Hebrews says the "law made nothing perfect," "it was only a shadow," and it had many faults. It only covered sin, it didn’t take sin away!
Who is the anti-type of the High Priest? Jesus Christ:
Hebrews 4:14 (NKJV) Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession.
Jesus fulfilled the anti-type of the High Priest and the sacrifice!
The New Covenant is far superior to the Old Covenant in that it affords true forgiveness and cleansing from sin. There is no atonement (covering) for sin under the New Covenant. There is no need for one. The sin question was settled at Calvary. The Messiah was not our atonement – He did away with our atonement. To say we have an atonement, is really inaccurate and is never taught in the New Covenant. The only time the word "atonement" is used in the New Testament, is in Romans 5:11, and the Greek word for that is "reconciliation". Jesus has reconciled us to God. He no longer covers our sins, He takes them away.
The Old Covenant was a shadow of things to come. The New Covenant is the substance. Under the Old Covenant, the payment for sin was anticipated, under the New Covenant, it is realized! Under the Old Covenant, the sacrifices were provisional and recurring. Under the New Covenant, the sacrifice of Jesus is eternal and totally sufficient. Under the Old Covenant, men’s lambs could only cover sin, but under the New Covenant, the lamb of god takes away sin!
Year after year, the sound of the ram’s horn calls Israel to repentance, but there is no atonement in Judaism today. There is no blood sacrifice, no temple, no priesthood, and no adherence to the Levitical regulations. Within every Jewish breast, there yearns a need for true forgiveness before God. It will never be found in the traditions of men, such as doing mitzvoth, or good deeds, or transferring one’s guilt to a substitute fowl. It can only come through accepting the infinite sacrifice of Jesus, the Lamb of God.
Christ has been offered as a sacrifice for sin. His is the only sacrifice for sin today. If His sacrifice is rejected, only one tragic alternative remains: men and women will suffer the penalty for their own sin. This penalty is death and eternal separation from God. But to those who have put their trust is Him, he says, "Their sin, I will remember no more!"
Yom Kapor and the Second Coming
If you examine the Scriptures concerning the second coming of Christ, you will find that it uses Yom Kippur terminology. Here are a few examples:
Isaiah 52:13-14 (NKJV) Behold, My Servant shall deal prudently; He shall be exalted and extolled and be very high (The New Covenant references to this include Acts 2:32-35; 5:30-31; and Philippians 2:9-11). 14 Just as many were astonished at you, So His visage was marred more than any man, And His form more than the sons of men;
This description of Jesus depicts a lamb going to the slaughter (Isaiah 53:7). Isaiah 52:14 depicts a man so marred that He did not resemble a man. Furthermore, Isaiah 50:6 says that His beard was ripped out. Psalm 22:14,17 says His bones were out of joint, and that He was naked before the peering eyes of men. They even bit him (Psalm 22:13).
Recognizing that Isaiah 52:13-14 is speaking about Jesus during His first coming to earth, notice verse 15 speaking about His second coming:
Isaiah 52:15 (NKJV) So shall He sprinkle many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths at Him; For what had not been told them they shall see, And what they had not heard they shall consider.
The phrase, "So shall He sprinkle many nations", is a reference to the sprinkling of the blood on the mercy seat of God by the high priest during Yom Kippur (Leviticus 16:14). This is also referred to in Leviticus 1:5,11; 3:2,8,13; 4:6,17; 7:2.
When it says that Jesus would sprinkle the nations, it refers to what the high priest did on Yom Kippur on the mercy seat of God, so God would forgive the sins of the people. Jesus came as a prophet in His first coming; now He is the High Priest and came back as a King:
Isaiah 63:1-3 (NKJV) Who is this who comes from Edom, With dyed garments from Bozrah, This One who is glorious in His apparel, Traveling in the greatness of His strength?; "I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save." 2 Why is Your apparel red, And Your garments like one who treads in the winepress? 3 "I have trodden the winepress alone, And from the peoples no one was with Me. For I have trodden them in My anger, And trampled them in My fury; Their blood is sprinkled upon My garments, And I have stained all My robes.
This passage describes the second coming of Christ, and verse 3 talks about His garments being sprinkled with blood. Once again this describes Jesus, the High Priest, coming back to earth on Yom Kippur.
Joel 2:15-16 (NKJV) Blow the trumpet in Zion [the trumpet (shofar[the trumpet (shofar) spoken of here refers to the trumpet ushering in the Messianic Kingdom, the last trump that is blown on Rosh HaShanah], Consecrate a fast [this speaks of the fast associated with Yom Kippur], Call a sacred assembly; 16 Gather the people, Sanctify the c
ongregation, Assemble the elders, Gather the children and nursing babes; Let the bridegroom go out from his chamber, And the bride from her dressing room.
In this passage in Joel, we can see that the seven years of the tribulation, known as the birthpangs of the Messiah, are over, and the Messiah is coming back with His followers to go to the marriage supper of the Lamb:
Joel 2:17 (NKJV) Let the priests, who minister to the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar [this speaks of an event that took place annually, the priest ministering in the Holy of Holies]; Let them say, "Spare Your people, O LORD, And do not give Your heritage to reproach, That the nations should rule over them. Why should they say among the peoples, ‘Where is their God?’"
What is being communicated here by the phrase, "spare Your people"? For the answer we must turn to Zechariah 12 and 14:1-9. In these passages, we can see Jesus coming back after the birthpangs of the Messiah (tribulation), and Jerusalem about to be under siege. His feet are placed on the Mount of Olives. There is a great earthquake, and the Kingdom comes in full power.
Jesus spoke of this same event in Matthew 24:27-31. In Matthew 24:31, the trumpet that is being blown is called by Jesus, "The great trumpet". This is the trumpet that is blown on Yom Kippur. This trumpet will usher the return of Jesus. Because the great trump is only blown on Yom Kippur, and because Jesus said that He would return with the sound of a great trump, Jesus was stating very clearly that He would return on a Yom Kippur
The types make it clear that Christ was to return on the Day of Atonement. The question is: Do we look for this as a future event or has it already happened? I believe that the Bible is clear that it already happened:
Hebrews 9:6-8 (NKJV) Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the tabernacle, performing the services. 7 But into the second part the high priest went alone once a year, not without blood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance; 8 the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.
The background of Hebrews 9 is the Day of Atonement. Verse 7 here talks about the High Priest going into the Holy of Holies to make atonement. Now notice, carefully, verse 8. In other words, it is the Holy Spirit who is responsible for the record given to us of the old covenant. And the significance of the outer tabernacle being divided and separated from the inner tabernacle was that the way into the presence of God had not yet been given. The Jews were continually reminded, by the physical presence of the tabernacle, that they were not allowed to enter into the presence of God.
The words, "while the first tabernacle was still standing" might better be translated, "while the first tabernacle still has any standing" – while the Old Covenant was still in force. As long as the Old Covenant was still in effect, men did not have access to the presence of God. Prior to Jesus’ second coming, at which he destroyed the temple and the Old Covenant, no one went to Heaven. Prior to Jesus’ second coming in A.D. 70, all who died went to a holding place of the dead and waited for the atoning work of Christ and the resurrection from the dead. Until Christ’s second coming, man could not go into God’s presence.
1 Peter 1:5 (NKJV) who are kept by the power of God through faith for salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
Salvation was ready to be revealed, when? In the last time, which would happen at the return of Christ:
Hebrews 9:28 (GWT) Likewise, Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of humanity, and after that he will appear a second time. This time he will not deal with sin, but he will save those who eagerly wait for him.
This is the only place in the New Testament where the return of Christ is called a second coming. In Young’s Literal Translation, it says, "A second time, apart from a sin-offering, shall appear"
Please notice carefully that at the second coming of Christ, he was to "save those who were eagerly waiting for him." Who was it that was eagerly waiting for Christ to return? Again, we must remember the hermeneutical principle of audience relevance. It was the first century Christians who eagerly awaited His return. When he returned in A.D. 70, He destroyed the temple signifying that salvation was complete, and man had access to the presence of God.
Our text says, "He will appear a second time. This time He will not deal with sin, but He will save those who eagerly wait for him." At his second coming, He was to "save"those who eagerly waited for Him. What does the text mean by "save"? "Save" is the Greek word soteria, which we know has a broad range of meanings. The context dealing with the Day of Atonement would tell us that He uses it here of redemption. Full and complete redemption came at the second coming:
Luke 21:27-28 (NKJV) "Then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28 "Now when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your heads, because your redemption draws near."
The "these things" in the context of this verse is the destruction of Jerusalem. Redemption was complete when the Lord returned, destroying Jerusalem and ending the Old Covenant.
Exodus typology: The Passover deliverance was not consummated until they entered the promised land. The Passover began with the sacrificing of the Passover lamb introduced in Exodus 12, while Israel is still in bondage. They ate the first Passover while they were still in Egyptian bondage. In Numbers 9:5, they ate of it again, while they are wondering in the wilderness. And then in Joshua, they entered the land:
Joshua 5:9-10 (NKJV) Then the LORD said to Joshua, "This day I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you." Therefore the name of the place is called Gilgal to this day. 10 Now the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho.
Throughout the history of Israel, the Passover recalled not only the sparing of the houses marked with the blood of the Passover lamb, but also Israel’s subsequent deliverance out of slavery in Egypt; a deliverance that was consummated forty years later in the crossing of the Jordan River. Once their redemption was consummated by their being in the promised land, only then were they truly redeemed from Egyptian bondage. This is true of the second exodus generation. Their redemption was not consummated until the Lord returned for His bride.
Because on the Day of Atonement the priest could be in God’s presence (Leviticus 16:20), another term for the Day of Atonement is "face to face". Face to face is an idiom for the Day of Atonement. It was on the Day of Atonement that the high priest had to go behind the veil of the temple. At that moment, the nation had to hold its breath, because the nation’s fate depended upon God’s accepting the sacrifice. At that point, the high priest was "face to face with the mercy seat of God". "Face to face" terminology was used in:
1 Corinthians 13:9-12 (NKJV) For we know in part and we prophesy in part. 10 But when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part will be done away. 11 When I
was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. 12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I shall know just as I also am known.
As we have seen in a previous study, "The Perfect Has Come", this is a reference to the second coming of Christ.
Jubilee year ( release of captives) started on Yom Kippur (Leviticus 25:9-11). The ultimate fulfillment of the year of Jubilee took place at the second coming of the Lord. Complete restoration of man’s lost inheritance took place. So, the year of Jubilee and the Day of Atonement speak of the fullness of the redemptive plan of God for man. A.D. 70 was a Jubilee year!
God divinely placed the Day of Atonement before the Feast of Tabernacles, which is called "The Season of Our Joy." The children of Israel and all believers in the Lord Jesus could only rejoice once they were redeemed and their sins forgiven.
Other lessons by David Curtis can be found at http://www.bereanbiblechurch.org/